This Week's Posts: Sunday, April 28--Sunday, May 5

Posted 4/28/2013

SUNDAY, APRIL 28 2013
FIFTH SUNDAY OF EASTER
Dominica IV Post Pascha ~ II. classis

RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms).

Last Week’s Posts: Sunday, April 21-Sunday, April 28.

MONDAY, APRIL 29 2013
MEMORIAL OF ST CATHERINE OF SIENA
S. Petri Martyris ~ III. classis
Tempora: Feria Secunda infra Hebdomadam IV post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

TUESDAY, APRIL 30 2013
TUESDAY OF THE FIFTH WEEK OF EASTER
S. Catharina Senensis Virgine ~ III. classis
Tempora: Feria Tertia infra Hebdomadam IV post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

WEDNESDAY, MAY 1 2013
WEDNESDAY OF THE FIFTH WEEK OF EASTER
S. Joseph Opificis ~ I. classis
Tempora: Feria Quarta infra Hebdomadam IV post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

THURSDAY, MAY 2 2013
MEMORIAL OF ST ATHANASIUS , BISHOP AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
S. Athanasii Confessoris Ecclesiae Doctoris ~ III. classis
Tempora: Feria Quinta infra Hebdomadam IV post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

FRIDAY, MAY 3 2013
FEAST OF ST PHILIP AND ST JAMES, APOSTLES
Feria Sexta infra Hebdomadam IV post Octavam Paschae ~ IV. classis
Commemoratio: Ss. Alexandri et Sociorum Martyrum

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

SATURDAY, MAY 4 2013
SATURDAY OF THE FIFTH WEEK OF EASTER
S. Monicae Viduae ~ III. classis
Tempora: Sabbato infra Hebdomadam IV post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

SUNDAY, MAY 5 2013
SIXTH SUNDAY OF EASTER
Dominica V Post Pascha ~ II. classis

RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms).

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May 5: Resources for Sunday Mass (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms)

Posted 4/27/2013

READINGS AND OFFICE:

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: Acts 15:1-2, 22-29.

COMMENTARIES ON THE RESPONSORIAL: Psalm 67:2-3, 5, 6, 8.

  • Pending: Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 67.

COMMENTARIES ON THE SECOND READING: Revelation 21:10-14, 22-23.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: John 14:23-29.

GENERAL RESOURCES: Sites which offer commentaries, reflections, summaries,etc., on one or more of the readings in a single post.

  • SacerdosGives the theme(s) of the readings, the doctrinal message, and pastoral application.
  • Lector Notes. Brief historical and theological background on the readings. Can be printed out, copied, and used as bulletin insert.
  • Scripture Speaks. Since the site doesn’t post every week I’ve linked to the archive.
  • The Bible Workshop. Links to several relevant articles, contains a reading guide to the gospel text, a comparison of the readings, suggestions for a lesson (i.e., homily).
  • The Wednesday WordIt’s about the Sunday readings, but the document is posted on Wednesday, hence the name. Designed for prayer and reflection, the pdf document ends with Father Dom Henry Wansbrough’s reflections on the first and second readings. Fr. Wansbrough is General Editor of the New Jerusalem Bible and contributed commentaries on Matt, Mark, and the Pastorals in A New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture.
  • St Charles Borromeo Parish’s Bible Study Notes. Notes on all the readings, usually with some background info as well.
  • Sacred Page Blog: Reflection on the readings by Catholic biblical scholar Dr. John Bergsma.
  • Preaching the Lectionary. Reflection on the gospel from the Christian Leadership Center, an ecumenical site.
  • Glancing Thoughts: Brief reflection on the first reading from philosopher Eleanore Stump.
  • The Gospel in its Historical Cultural Context. Briefly examines the gospel reading in light of first century Mediterranean culture.
  • Thoughts From The Early Church. Excerpt on the Gospel from St Bernard of Clairvaux.
  • Scripture In Depth. Succinct summary of the readings and their relation to one another.
  • The Unofficial Lectionary. Readings from the Douay-Rheims bible followed by notes from the old Haydock commentary.

PODCASTS: Pending.

EXTRAORDINARY FORM
FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER EASTER
DOMINICA V POST PASCHA~II. CLASSIS

MISSAL AND BREVIARY:

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: James 1:22-27.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: John 16:23-30.

HOMILY NOTES: Useful for sermon ideas, points of meditation or further study.

HOMILIES:

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This Week's Posts: Sunday, April 21-Sunday, April 28 2013

Posted 4/22/2013

SUNDAY, APRIL 21 2013
FOURTH SUNDAY OF EASTER
Dominica III Post Pascha~II. classis

RESOURCES OF SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms).

Last Week’s Posts: Sunday, April 14-Sunday, April 21.

MONDAY, APRIL 22 2013
MONDAY OF THE FOURTH WEEK OF EASTER
SS. Soteris et Caji Paparum et Martyrum ~ III. classis
Tempora: Feria Secunda infra Hebdomadam III post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

TUESDAY, APRIL 23
TUESDAY OF THE FOURTH WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Tertia infra Hebdomadam III post Octavam Paschae ~ IV. classis
Commemoratio: S. Georgii Martyris

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24
WEDNESDAY OF THE FOURTH WEEK OF EASTER
S. Fidelis Sigmaringa Martyris ~ III. classis
Tempora: Feria Quarta infra Hebdomadam III post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM: The Gospel reading for this form is on John 15:1-7, all of the Commentaries listed below include verse 8.

THURSDAY, APRIL 25
FEAST OF ST MARK THE EVANGELIST
S. Marci Evangelistae ~ II. classis
Tempora: Feria Quinta infra Hebdomadam III post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

FRIDAY, APRIL 26
FRIDAY OF THE FOURTH WEEK OF EASTER
SS. Cleti et Marcellini Paparum et Martyrum ~ III. classis
Tempora: Feria Sexta infra Hebdomadam III post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

SATURDAY, APRIL 27
SATURDAY OF THE FOURTH WEEK OF EASTER
S. Petri Canisii Confessoris et Ecclesiae Doctoris ~ III. classis
Tempora: Sabbato infra Hebdomadam III post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

SUNDAY, APRIL 28 2013
FIFTH SUNDAY OF EASTER
Dominica IV Post Pascha ~ II. classis

Pending: RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms). Usually posted on Tues., Wed., or Thurs. evening (usually Wednesday).

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Sunday, April 21:Resources for Sunday Mass~Fourth Sunday of Easter (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms)

Posted 4/20/2013

This post contains resources (mostly biblical and homiletic) for both the Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms of the Roman Rite.

SUNDAY, APRIL 21 2013
THE FOURTH SUNDAY OF EASTER, YEAR C
ORDINARY FORM

READINGS AND OFFICE:

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: Acts 13:14, 43-52.

COMMENTARIES ON THE RESPONSORIAL PSALM: Psalm 100:1-2, 3, 5.

COMMENTARIES ON THE SECOND READING: Revelation 7:9, 14b-17.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: John 10:27-30.

GENERAL RESOURCES: Sites which offer commentaries, reflections, summaries,etc., on one or more of the readings in a single post.

  • SacerdosGives the theme(s) of the readings, the doctrinal message, and pastoral application.
  • Lector Notes. Brief historical and theological background on the readings. Can be printed out, copied, and used as bulletin insert.
  • Scripture Speaks. Since the site doesn’t post every week I’ve linked to the archive.
  • The Bible Workshop. Links to several relevant articles, contains a reading guide to the gospel text, a comparison of the readings, suggestions for a lesson (i.e., homily).
  • The Wednesday WordIt’s about the Sunday readings, but the document is posted on Wednesday, hence the name. Designed for prayer and reflection, the pdf document ends with Father Dom Henry Wansbrough’s reflections on the first and second readings. Fr. Wansbrough is General Editor of the New Jerusalem Bible and contributed commentaries on Matt, Mark, and the Pastorals in A New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture.
  • St Charles Borromeo Parish’s Bible Study Notes. Notes on all the readings, usually with some background info as well.
  •  Sacred Page Blog: Both “Lamb” and “Shepherd”. Reflection on the readings by Catholic biblical scholar Dr. John Bergsma.
  • Preaching the Lectionary. Reflection on the gospel from the Christian Leadership Center, an ecumenical site.
  • Glancing Thoughts: Brief reflection on the first reading from philosopher Eleanore Stump.
  • The Gospel in its Historical Cultural Context. Briefly highlights the significance of Jesus’ relationship to the Father in terms of first century Mediterranean culture.
  • Thoughts From The Early Church. Excerpt on the Gospel from St Cyril of Alexandria.
  • Scripture In Depth. Succinct summary of the readings and their relation to one another.
  • The Unofficial Lectionary. Readings from the Douay-Rheims bible followed by notes from the old Haydock commentary.

CHILDREN AND TEEN RESOURCES:

PODCASTS: Bible studies and homilies.

  • On the Readings as a Whole: On the three readings and the Psalm.

St Martha’s Bible Study Podcast for the 4th Sunday of Easter.
Franciscan Sister’s Bible Study Podcast for the 4th Sunday of Easter. Link is to archive page. Episode will be available sometime Thursday.
Dr. Scott Hahn’s Podcast. Very brief overview highlighting the main theme(s) of the readings.

Father Francis Martin’s Reflections: 4 parts, each approximately 15 minutes. The first is introductory and the remaining three look at the readings.

Part 1. Introduction.
Part 2First reading and psalm.
Part 3. Second reading.
Part4. Gospel.

  • Acts of Apostles Chapter 7:

Institute of Catholic Culture’s Podcast on Acts of Apostles. Listen to part 6 which deals with chapters 6-9.

EWTN’s Gospel of the Holy Spirit (on Acts of Apostles). Listen to episode 4.

St Catherine of Siena’s Podcast Study of Acts of Apostles. On chapters 6-8.

  • Revelation Chapter 7:

Institute of Catholic Culture’s Podcast Study of Revelation. Three part study provides background and overview to the book.

(1) St Martha’s Parish Podcast Study of Revelation Chapters 6 & 7. Please note that the study opens with a brief reading from Mark 13. Power-point handout for above talk.

(2) Another Study on Revelation by St Martha’s Parish On chapters 7-11.

Catholic Study of the Book of Revelation. On chapters 7-12.

  • Gospel of John 10:

EWTN’s Series on John 10-11. Scroll down and listen to episode 9.

St Martha’s Parish Bible Study Podcast on John. Click on session 8.

St Irenaeus Ministries Podcast on John. Click on POD icon or direct download link.

Franciscan Sister’s Bible Study Podcast on John. Scroll down and click on the episode deal with 10:14-12:6.

Sunday Gospel Scripture Study. Video. Excellent resource. Looks at the gospel in detail.

  • HOMILIES:

Father Robert Barron’s Podcast Homily.
Life Teen Podcast for the Fourth Sunday of Easter. I’ve also listed this below under the podcast heading.

EXTRAORDINARY FORM
THIRD SUNDAY AFTER EASTER
Dominica III Post Pascha ~ II. classis

MISSAL AND BREVIARY:

  • Roman Missal. Latin & English side by side. Be sure correct date is set.
  • Roman Breviary. Latin & English side by side. Be sure correct date is set.
  • Goffine’s Instruction on the Epistle and Gospel. Famous devotional work in English. Similar to the content in the Missal link but it also includes brief instructions on the readings plus a brief essay on Encouragement to Patience in Adversity, base upon John 16:20.

COMMENTARIES/RESOURCES  ON THE LESSON: 1 Peter 2:11-19.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: John 16:16-22.

HOMILIES AND HOMILY NOTES:

  • Pending: St Augustine’s Homily on the Gospel.
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This Week's Posts: Sunday, April 14--Sunday, April 21

Posted 4/15/2013

SUNDAY, APRIL 14 2013
THIRD SUNDAY OF EASTER

Dominica II Post Pascha ~ II. classis

RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary Form).

RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Extraordinary Form).

Last Week’s Posts: Sunday, April 7–Sunday, April 14.

MONDAY, APRIL 15 2013
MONDAY OF THE THIRD WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Tertia infra Hebdomadam II post Octavam Paschae ~ IV. classis

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

TUESDAY, APRIL 16 2013
TUESDAY OF THE THIRD WEEK OF EASTER (OF)
Tempora: Feria Tertia infra Hebdomadam II post Octavam Paschae (EF)

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 17 2013
WEDNESDAY OF THE THIRD WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Quarta infra Hebdomadam II post Octavam Paschae~IV. classiss
Commemoratio: S. Aniceti Papae et Martyris

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

GENERAL POSTS:

Video~Religionlesss Christianity: Do I need the Church if I’m “Spiritual”? From Catholic biblical scholar Dr. Tim Gray.

THURSDAY, APRIL 18 2013
THURSDAY OF THE THIRD WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Quarta infra Hebdomadam II post Octavam Paschae~IV. classiss

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

FRIDAY, APRIL 19 2013
FRIDAY OF THE THIRD WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Sexta infra Hebdomadam II post Octavam Paschae (EF)

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

SATURDAY, APRIL 20 2013
SATURDAY OF THE THIRD WEEK OF EASTER
SANCTAE MARIAE SABBATO~IV. CLASSIS (EF)

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

SUNDAY, APRIL 21 2013
FOURTH SUNDAY OF EASTER
Dominica III Post Pascha~II. classis

Pending: RESOURCES OF SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms). Usually posted on Tues., Wed., or Thurs. evenings.

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Bishop MacEvilly's Commentary on Acts 13:14, 43-52

Posted 4/14/2013

Text in red represents my additional comments to the Bishop’s original text.

Chapter 13 is extremely important for Luke’s overall narrative strategy, which is also his theological strategy.  Here he presents for the first time in any detail St Paul’s missionary activity.

At the beginning of Acts our Lord had laid down the itinerary of the Gospel: From Jerusalem, to Judea, to Samaria,  to the ends of the earth (1:8).  Chapters 2-8 of the book show that itinerary working itself out to the regions of Samaria, and then we are introduced to Paul (Saul) a persecutor of the Church (ch 8) who is converted by a special vision of the risen Lord.  we are informed that he is a specially chosen instrument through whom the Name of the Lord would be carried to Gentiles, Kings and Israelites (9:15).  However, after this statement, St Paul is shown speaking only to the Jews in the synagogues of Damascus and in Jerusalem  after which he returns to his hometown of Tarsus (9:19-30).  His mission to uncircumcised Gentiles has not yet begun.  Peter, as leader of the apostolic band must first receive his vision.  Only after this event can the mission to the uncircumcised begin, or at least be validated (10:1-11:20).

We then learn that some Jerusalem Christians who had left that city after the martyrdom of Stephen (narrated in ch 8) had gone to Antioch (the one in Syria) and had begun preaching to the Gentiles, apparently meaning those uncircumcised (11:19-20).  Hearing of this the church in Jerusalem sent Barnabas, a major, respected figure among them (4:36-37; 9:26-27) to the city (11:22).  Seeing what was taking place, he traveled to Tarsus and brought Paul back to Antioch with him (11:25-26).  As they evangelized in Antioch a prophet had a vision concerning a famine that would hit much of the empire, including Jerusalem, and it was determined that a collection should be taken up for the relief of the city, and Paul and Barnabas were to deliver it (11:27-30).

At this point St Luke again breaks of his Paul narrative to focus on Peter.  We read of Herod’s putting St James, the brother of John to death, and of his arresting Peter with the same view in mind.  But Peter is freed by the intervention of an angel and is forced to leave the country to evangelize elsewhere.  With his departure James, “the brother of the Lord,” becomes the leader in Jerusalem.  It appears that James had a somewhat restricted view of the mission to the uncircumcised, and what takes place here (12:1-19) lays the foundation for the events in chapter 15, but those events do not concern us here.

At this point (12:25) St Luke takes up his Paul narrative.  Paul and Barnabas return to Antioch and, as the result of a prophecy, undertake a mission which has become known as the first missionary journey of St Paul (13:1-3).  They make their way to Cyprus and first detail we get of the mission is that St Paul and his companions-as they try to convert a prominent Roman (Pagan) official-are opposed by a Jewish “false prophet” and a “magician,” foreshadowing the fact that they would be opposed by both Jewish and Pagan peoples (13:4-12).

Leaving the island of Cyprus they traveled to Perge in Pamphylia, at which point John Mark, cousin of Barnabas and future author of the Gospel of Mark, leaves them and returns to Jerusalem.  Saints Paul and Barnabas continue on to Antioch of Pisidia where the events of this Sunday’s readings take place.

Act 13:14  But they (Paul and Barnabas), passing through Perge, came to Antioch in Pisidia: and, entering into the Synagogue on the sabbath day, they sat down.

The verse opens with a conjunctive (δέ=de) which links it to the preceding verse  in some way I.e., verse 13, not part of this Sunday’s reading).  It can be taken as either an adversative or a continuative.  Clearly the word is meant to introduce the text which follows as an adversative: Though John Mark abandoned the mission, Paul and Barnabas continued on.  No specific detail is given as to why Mark abandoned them, however, the word ἀποχωρέω (apochōreō, translated as “departing” in the Douay-Rheims) is used in the Greek text of Jeremiah 46:5 to refer to cowardice.  but the word can also have connotations of disagreeing with another persons opinions.  Well man speculate that the former meaning of the word (cowardice) is the reason for the departure, I would suggest something based upon the text itself.  It was through Barnabas that Paul came to have acceptance by the church in Jerusalem (9:27), and it was Barnabas who tagged Paul for the work in Antioch (11:25), and it was Barnabas who was mentioned first in the prophecy at Antioch of Syria (13:1-3).  Perhaps Mark was jealous regarding the position of his cousin Barnabas; clearly, on the Island of Cyprus St Paul was coming into his own, and as the narrative unfolds it becomes clear that Paul became the head of the missionary band.  Another possibility is this: in writings produced by Greek speaking Jews the word  ἀποχωρέω designates an action or mindset close to apostasy, perhaps implying that Mark was having second thoughts about the  mission to the uncircumcised.  but, of course, since St Luke has rather delicately chosen not to tell us the circumstances, perhaps we should not dwell on the possibilities.  We should perhaps just rest content in the fact that St Mark became a trusted companion of both St Peter and St Paul, and produced one of our four Gospels (1 Pet 5:13; Philemon 24; 2 Tim 4:11).

Passing through Perge. They made no stay this time at Perge.  Not so, however, on their return (see 14:25).  They preached the Gospel upon their return there, something they didn’t do, according to (or rather implied by) Luke narrative here.

“Antioch of Pisidia.” different from the well-known Antioch of Syria (11:19).  Here are a few photos of the ruins of the city along with some history (scroll down).

“Entering into the Synagogue.”
There must have been a good many Jews there.  Luke will tell us in 17:1 that St Paul’s preaching in the synagogue of whatever town he came to was his usual custom.

“They sat down.” Assuming the position of Doctors (ie., teachers of doctrine), and conveying that they would be glad to address the congregation.  Although specially marked out by the Holy Ghost himself for the conversion of the Gentile world, they deemed it right to attend to the Divine mandate of preaching to the Jews, first, “Judeo primum.”

Sitting was the common position of those authorized to teach.  Jesus sat down to deliver the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus spoke of those who held “the chair of Moses” (see Mt 5:1; 23:2).

Act 13:43  And when the synagogue was broken up, many of the Jews and of the strangers who served God followed Paul and Barnabas: who, speaking to them, persuaded them to continue in the grace of God.

In verses 16-41 St Paul preached a sermon in the synagogue which focused primarily on the Resurrection of Jesus as the fulfillment of the promises made to King David.  The Catholic Commentary On Holy Scripture summarizes: “St Paul’s Speech in the Synagogue —This is given as the type of St Paul’s exposition to Jews. To Gentiles he gives elementary theodicy, 14:14. Here he outlines the history of Salvation, and shows the conformity of the new teaching with the Scriptures. The three parts of the great discourse are clearly marked by the apostrophe ‘Men brethren’, 16, 26, 38. The first part runs parallel to the speech of St Stephen, the second and third to the early speeches of St Peter, but the whole is thoroughly Pauline in doctrine and style, cf.§ 816b. The conclusion is that justification comes through Jesus.”
“Broken up.” Dismissed or concluded in the usual way.  “Many of the Jews,” native (i.e., born) Jews, “and strangers,” &c.  Preselytes (see verse 16) accompanied them to their lodgings.

“The grace of God.” The doctrine of the Gospel and faith.

Act 13:44   But the next sabbath day, the whole city almost came together, to hear the word of God.


Most of the population, including Gentiles, “came together.”  Where? Not said, possibly several audiences were given, as no one synagogue could contain all together; or, in some open space around the Synagogue.

Act 13:45  And the Jews, seeing the multitudes, were filled with envy and contradicted those things which were said by Paul, blaspheming.

“Were filled with envy.
“  Felt great indignation on seeing the Gentiles admitted on such easy terms.  In their reaction they showed that they failed to heed Paul’s warning on the previous Sabbath (vss 40-41). Also, it should be noted that the same reaction confronted Peter and John in 5:17.  This vice is often associated by Luke with the desire to murder or harm (5:17-18; 7:9; see also James 3:13-4:10; Wisdom 2:24).

“Contradicted.”
Denounced as false, the teaching “of Paul,” the chief speaker,  “Blaspheming.” Adding some reproaches, which were so many blasphemies against our Lord.  The word antilego is used twice in this verse, translated as “contradicted” and “blaspheming.” It is the same word used by Simeon to describe the response Jesus would get in Luke 2:32.  It is used only two other times in Acts; the first in 28:19, where it is associated with Paul’s impending trial before Caesar; and the second in 28:22, where it is used to denote widespread rumor concerning Christians.

13:46  Then Paul and Barnabas said boldly: To you it behooved us first to speak the word of God: but because you reject it and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold we turn to the Gentiles.

“Boldly.” Spiritedly, with courageous intrepidity, disregarding their anger and jealousy.  Note the contrast in speech here.  To the deceptive speech of their accusers the missionaries speak with boldness (meaning also openness, frankness, etc).  The Greek parresiazomai is used several times in Acts to denote St Paul’s preaching(e.g., 9:27-28), a related word, parresia, is used in 4:13 to denote the actions of Peter and John.  In 4:29 the Church prays for the gift to continue speaking boldly.  the Protestant reference work The International Standard Biblical Encyclopedia notes: “bōld´nes (παρρησία, parrēsı́a, “confidence,” “fearlessness,” “freedom of speech”): This was one of the results of discipleship (Act_4:13, Act_4:29, Act_4:31; Eph_3:12; Phi_1:20; 1Ti_3:13; 1Jo_4:17). It was a necessary qualification for the work assigned them. They were not only subject to violent persecutions, but also were the constant subject of ridicule and contempt. Paul uses the word in the sense of plainness in 2Co_3:12. In Heb_10:19; 1Jo_2:28; 1Jo_4:17, it has the sense of freeness resulting from confidence. In Phm_1:8, the reference is to the authority which Paul claims in this case.”

But because you reject it.  The Greek conjunctive translated as “But because” provides a cause for the turn to the Gentiles, which mission will be attributed to the Divine will.

“To you it behooved us,” &c.  This according to the precept of our Lord (Lk 24:47).  See also Acts 3:26; Rom 1:16; 2:9-10.

“Judge yourselves,” &c. By rejecting the means of salvation offered to you.  Not that they deemed themselves unworthy of salvation; but rather the opposite.  Their conduct, however, in rejecting the means of salvation was a practical judgment on the subject, though they thought the reverse.  The Greek word used here is κρινετε (judging), which is related to the word κριναντες in verse 27 where it refers to the condemnation of Jesus by the Jewish leaders; both words are derived from κρίνω, (krino=”judge”).  Luke is probably engaging in irony here.

Turn to the Gentiles. See 18:6 and 28:28.

Act 13:47  For so the Lord hath commanded us: I have set thee to be the light of the Gentiles: that thou mayest be for salvation unto the utmost part of the earth.

“So the Lord commanded,” &c.  He does not here refer to the express command of our Lord himself, which the Jews would undervalue; but, to the commands contained in their own highly-prized Scriptures of the Old Testament.  The Greek word ἐντέλλομαι (entellomai=commanded) recalls the words of the Risen Jesus to the twelve in Acts 1:2~”Until the day on which, giving commandments by the Holy Ghost to the apostles whom he had chosen, he was taken up” One of those commandments concerned witnessing to the ends of the earth; a mission which Paul now shares in.

“I have set thee,” &c.  These words, as is universally admitted, directly refer to the Messiah.  They are found in Isaiah 49:6.  They implicitly refer to the Apostles, who were to act in His name, and by preaching Him to the Gentiles, were to be instrumental in carrying out in his regard, what he was appointed to be, “The light to of the Gentiles,” whom he was to draw forth from the darkness of error and ignorance, and become the source of “salvation” to all mankind, even unto the utmost parts of the earth.  The full text of Isaiah 49:6 reads in full: “And he said: It is a small thing that thou shouldst be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to convert the dregs of Israel. Behold, I have given thee to be the light of the Gentiles, that thou mayst be my salvation even to the farthest part of the earth.”  The passage was applied by way of allusion to the infant Jesus by Simeon in Luke 2:32.  Also, the passage connects with Jesus word’s in Acts 1:8.  Here Paul and Barnabas apply it to themselves.  This is not accidental.  As he opened this book, his second volume, Luke had described the first, his Gospel in these words: “The former treatise I made, O Theophilus, of all things which Jesus began to do and to teach…”  Began to do and teach implies that he is still doing and teaching, but now through his Church.

13:48  And the Gentiles hearing it were glad and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to life everlasting believed.

Hearing from the mouths of the Jews themselves (i.e, Paul and companions) that they were to be sharers equally with the Jews in salvation, who would fain confine salvation to themselves.  “Glorified the word of God.”  Speaking of it with revrence and thankfulness, as a message from God.  They are contrasted with those Jews who rejected God’s word (vs 46).

“as were ordained.”
Does not refer to a decree, as some understand it, on the part of God predestinating men to Eternal Life, in consequence of which decree they believed and embraced the faith.  There is no question at least immediately and directly of any predestinating decree at all.  The Greek word for “ordained” (τάσσω=tasso) is probably allusive to military discipline, wherein men are arranged by their officers under their proper peculiar standard.  The words mean, that such as were disposed and divinely directed under the influence of God’s preventing graces, inspiring and strengthening them, to aspire after life everlasting, freely embraced the faith, “believed”-as one of the most essential means of attaining the object they had in view.

Everlasting life. Applied to the Gentiles here it contrasts with what was said in verse 46 to the unbelieving Jews: “To you it behoved us first to speak the word of God: but because you reject it and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life…”

Act 13:49  And the word of the Lord was published throughout the whole country.

The entire district of Antioch of Pisidia embraced the faith, owing to the influence and preaching of Paul and Barnabas.  There is question of the Gentile population, to whom Paul and Barnabas addressed themselves, after having been rejected  and resisted by the the Jews.  I.e., The Bishop means by this last sentence that the word continued to be made known throughout the Gentile population of the region.

Act 13:50  But the Jews stirred up religious and honourable women and the chief men of the city: and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas: and cast them out of their coasts.

“Honourable women.”  Women of high rank, connected with high families of influence.

“Chief men,” &c.  The civil magistrates, who exercised civil authority.
“Cast them,” &c.  Had a decree enacted, banishing them.  This does not imply violence.  Likely, they had men employed to see them depart from their country.

As noted earlier (vs 45), several times in Acts the vice of envy leads to violence (see 5:17, 33).

Act 13:51  But they, shaking off the dust of their feet against them, came to Iconium.

For the meaning of this symbolical mode of acting, prescribed by our Lord, in certain circumstances, to his apostles, see Matthew 10:14 and our commentary on it.  The primary point the Bishop makes in Mt 10:14 concerning the act is taken from st Hilary, who wrote: “Upon such as rejected the precepts of the heavenly kingdom an eternal curse is left by the departure of the Apostles, and the dust shaken from their feet; “And whosoever shall not receive you, not hear your words, “when ye go out of that house, or that town, cast the dust off your feet.” For he that lives in any place seems to have a kind of fellowship with that place. By the casting the dust off the feet, therefore all that belonged to that house is left behind, and nothing of healing or soundness is borrowed from the footsteps of the Apostles having trod their soil”.

 

Act 13:52  And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Ghost.

Joy infused by the Holy Ghost in communicating His gifts.

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Father Callan's Commentary on Acts 13:13-16, 43-52

Posted 4/14/2013

13. Now when Paul and they that were with him had sailed from Paphos, they came to Perge in Pamphylia. And John departing from them, returned to Jerusalem.
14. But they passing through Perge, came to Antioch in Pisidia: and entering into the Synagogue on the sabbath day, they sat down. 
15. And after the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying: Ye men, brethren, if you have any word of exhortation to make to the people, speak.

Sailing from Paphos, Paul, with Barnabas, John Mark, and perhaps some other converts who had joined the little company, came to Perge (Perga), the capital of Pamphylia, on the river Cestrus. It was a journey of about 170 miles. We have no record of any preaching in Pamphylia, and here John Mark parted with the Apostle and went back to Jerusalem. We do not know the reason for this action on the part of Mark, but it was very displeasing to St. Paul. Proceeding from Perge by land, the missionaries came to Antioch in Pisidia, a journey of about 100 miles. Antioch was situated on the slopes of Mount Tarsus, and was the capital of Southern Galatia. It was built by Seleucus Nicanor in memory of ‘his father Antiochus, and under Augustus was elevated to the dignity of a Roman colony. St. Paul’s preaching in Antioch
bore much fruit with the Gentiles, but the Jews became enraged against him.

The Synagogue. See on Matthew 4:23. Paul entered the synagogue to take part in divine worship, and as it was customary to ask strangers who seemed qualified to give instruction to speak, Paul was requested by the rulers of the synagogue to give an exhortation to the people. See on Luke 4:16.

44. But the next sabbath day, the whole city almost came together, to hear the word of God.

Saints Paul and Barnabas are in the city of Antioch in Pisidia. See Acts 13:16-43.

45. And the Jews seeing the multitudes, were filled with envy, and contradicted those things which were said by Paul, blaspheming.

Filled with envy and jealousy over the success of Paul’s preaching, and angered at the doctrine that the Gentiles should be allowed to enter the Messianic kingdom without first being subjected to circumcision and the observances of the Mosaic Law, the Jewish leaders and teachers began to contradict St. Paul. They would not admit a Messiah who would take away their privileges and receive Gentiles on an equal footing with Jews, and hence ”blaspheming” they broke out into injurious speech against our Lord also.

46. Then Paul and Barnabas said boldly: To you it behoved us first to
speak the word of God: but because you reject it, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold we turn to the Gentiles.

It behooved the Apostles to preach first to the Jews and announce to them the fulfillment of the prophecies concerning the Messiah, because to the Jews were delivered the oracles of the prophets; but now, by refusing faith in Christ, the only way to eternal life, the Jews had become unworthy of that life.

47. For so the Lord hath commanded us: I have set thee to be the light of the Gentiles; that thou mayest be for salvation unto the utmost part of the earth.

The Lord hath commanded us, etc. It was the will of God, made manifest through the prophet Isaias (49:6), that the good tidings of the Gospel should be carried to the Gentiles and to all the world.

48. And the Gentiles hearing it, were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to life everlasting, believed.

Were ordained, τεταγμενοι, praeordinati, in the Vulgate, means well disposed, as contrasted with the Jews who were ill disposed to make use of the means for obtaining eternal life. It is generally admitted that there is no question of predestination here, although St. Augustine often infers from this passage that election to glory depends solely on the free will of God, and not at all on the merits of the elect. We must, however, hold that the good dispositions of the converts for faith were from God and not from their own merits.

49. And the word of the Lord was published throughout the whole country.
50. But the Jews stirred up religious and honourable women, and the chief men of the city, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas: and cast them out of their coasts.

Honourable women; i.e., proselytes, who had been converted to Judaism, but whose prominent and influential husbands had remained pagans. These women, influenced by the Jews, persuaded their husbands that Paul and Barnabas should be cast out as disturbers of the peace. This was the first persecution Paul encountered on his mission, but numerous others were to follow.

51. But they, shaking off the dust of their feet against them, came to
Iconium.

Shaking off the dust, etc. This action on the part of the Apostles was intended to show that the people who rejected or ill treated them were unworthy of further attention, and were to be avoided, even as things unclean or impure. The Rabbis taught the Jews always to shake the dust from their feet when coming from pagan cities or lands to Palestine.

52. And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Ghost.

The disciples; i.e., the new converts whom Paul left behind at Antioch. In spite of persecution they were full of joy, and ready to suffer anything for the sake of Christ.

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St Augustine's Notes on Psalm 100

Posted 4/14/2013

The following is taken from St Augustine’s Exposition On The Book Of Psalms.

1. Ye heard the Psalm, brethren, while it was being chanted: it is short, and not obscure: as if I had given you an assurance, that ye should not fear fatigue . …

2. The title of this Psalm is, “A Psalm of confession.” The verses are few, but big with great subjects; may the seed bring forth within your hearts, the barn be prepared for the Lord’s harvest.

3. “Jubilate,” therefore, “unto the Lord, all ye lands” (verse 1). This Psalm giveth this exhortation to us, that we jubilate unto the Lord. Nor doth it, as it were, exhort one particular corner of the earth, or one habitation or congregation of men; but since it is aware that it hath sown blessings on every side, on every side it doth exact jubilance. Doth all the earth at this moment hear my voice? And yet the whole earth hath heard this voice. All the earth is already jubilant in the Lord; and what is not as yet jubilant, will be so. For blessing, extending on every side, when the Church was commencing to spread from Jerusalem throughout all nations,(1) everywhere overturneth ungodliness, and everywhere buildeth up piety: the good are mingled with the wicked throughout all lands. Every land is full of the discontented murmurs of the wicked, and of the jubilance of the good. What then is it, “to jubilate”? For the title of the present Psalm especially maketh us give good heed to this word, for it is entitled, “A Psalm of confession.” What meaneth, to jubilate with confession? It is the sentiment thus expressed in another Psalm: “Blessed is the people that understandeth jubilance.” Surely that which being understood maketh blessed is something great. May therefore the Lord our God, who maketh men blessed, grant me to understand what to say, and grant you to understand what ye hear: “Blessed is the people that understandeth jubilance.”(2) Let us therefore run unto this blessing, let us understand jubilance, let us not pour it forth without understanding. Of what use is it to be jubilant and obey(3) this Psalm, when it saith, “Jubilate unto the Lord, all ye lands,” and not to understand what jubilance is, so that our voice only may be jubilant, our heart not so? For the understanding is the utterance of the heart.(4)

4. I am about to say what ye know. One who jubilates, uttereth not words, but it is a certain sound of joy without words: for it is the expression of a mind poured forth in joy, expressing, as far as it is able, the affection, but not compassing the feeling. A man rejoicing in his own exultation, after certain words which cannot s be uttered or understood, bursteth forth into sounds of exultation without words, so that it seemeth that he indeed doth rejoice with his voice itself, but as if filled with excessive joy cannot express in words the subject of that joy… . Those who are engaged at work in the fields are most given to jubilate; reapers, or vintagers, or those who gather any of the fruits of the earth, delighted with the abundant produce, and rejoicing in the very richness and exuberance of the soil, sing in exultation; and among the songs which they utter in words, they put in certain cries without words in the exultation of a rejoicing mind; and this is what is meant by jubilating.(6)…

5. When then are we jubilant? When we praise that which cannot be uttered. For we observe the whole creation, the earth and the sea, and all things that therein are: we observe that each have their sources and causes, the power of production, the order of birth, the limit of duration, the end in decease, that successive ages run on without any confusion, that the stars roll, as it seemeth, from the East to the West, and complete the courses of the years: we see how the months are measured, how the hours extend; and in all these things a certain invisible element, I know not what, but some principle? of unity, which is termed spirit or soul, present in all living things, urging them to the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain, and the preservation of their own safety; that man also hath somewhat in common with the Angels of God; not with cattle, such as life, hearing, sight, and so forth; but somewhat which can understand God, which peculiarly doth belong to the mind, which can distinguish justice and injustice, as the eye discerneth white from black. In all this consideration of creation, which I have run over as I could, let the soul ask itself: Who created all these things? Who made them? Who made among them thyself? … I have observed the whole creation, as far as I could. I have observed the bodily creation in heaven and on earth, and the spiritual in myself who am speaking, who animate my limbs, who exert voice, who move the tongue, who pronounce words, and distinguish sensations. And when can I comprehend myself in myself? How then can I comprehend what is above myself? Yet the sight of God is promised to the human heart, and a certain operation of purifying the heart is enjoined; this is the counsel of Scripture. Provide the means of seeing what thou lovest, before thou try to see it. For unto whom is it not sweet to hear of God and His Name, except to the ungodly, who is far removed, separated from Him? …

6. Be therefore like Him in piety, and earnest in meditation: for “the invisible things of Him are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made;”(8) look upon the things that are made, admire them, seek their author. If thou art unlike, thou wilt turn back; if like, thou wilt rejoice. And when; being like Him, thou shalt have begun to approach Him, and to feel God, the more love increaseth in thee, since God is love, thou wilt perceive somewhat which thou wast trying to say, and yet couldest not say. Before thou didst feel God, thou didst think that thou couldest express God; thou beginnest to feel Him, and then feelest that what thou dost feel thou canst not express. But when thou hast herein found that what thou dost feel cannot be expressed, wilt thou be mute, wilt thou not praise God? Wilt thou then be silent in the praises of God, and wilt thou not offer up thanksgivings unto Him who hath willed to make Himself known unto thee? Thou didst praise Him when thou wast seeking, wilt thou be silent when thou hast found Him? By no means; thou wilt not be ungrateful. Honour is due to Him, reverence is due to Him, great praise is due to Him. Consider thyself, see what thou art: earth and ashes; look who it is hath deserved to see, and What; consider who thou art, What to see, a man to see GOD! I recognise not the man’s deserving, but the mercy of God. Praise therefore Him who hath mercy . …

7. “Serve the Lord with gladness.” All servitude is full of bitterness: all who are bound to a lot of servitude both are slaves, and discontented. Fear not the servitude of that Lord: there will be no groaning there, no discontent, no indignation; no one seeketh to be sold to another master, since it is a sweet service, because we are all redeemed. Great happiness, brethren, it is, to be a slave in that great house, although in bonds. Fear not, bound slave, confess unto the Lord: ascribe thy bonds to thine own deservings; confess in thy chains, if thou art desirous they be changed into ornaments. … At the same time thou art slave, and free; slave, because thou art created such; free, because thou art loved by God, by whom thou wast created: yea, free indeed, because thou lovest Him by whom thou wast made. Serve not with discontent; for thy murmurs do not tend to release thee from serving, but to make thee a wicked servant. Thou art a slave of the Lord, thou art a freedman of the Lord: seek not so to be emancipated as to depart from the house of Him who frees thee . …

8. I will, therefore, saith he, live separate with a few good men: why should I live in common with crowds? Well: those very few good men, from what crowds have they been strained out? If however these few are all good: it is, nevertheless, a good and praiseworthy design in man, to be with such as have chosen a quiet life; distant from the bustle of the people, from noisy crowds, from the great waves of life, they are as if in harbour. Is there therefore here that joy? that jubilant gladness which is promised? Not as yet; but still groans, still the anxiety of temptations. For even the harbour hath an entrance somewhere or other; if it had not, no ship could enter it; it must therefore be open on some side: but at times on this open side the wind rusheth in; and where there are no rocks, ships dashed together shatter one another. Where then is security, if not even in harbour? And yet it must be confessed, it is true, that persons in harbour are in their degree much better off than when afloat on the main. Let them love one another, as ships in harbour, let them be bound together happily; let them not dash against one another: let absolute equality be preserved there constancy in love; and when perchance the wind rusheth in from the open side, let there be careful piloting there. Now what will one who perchance presideth over such places, nay, who serveth his brethren, in what are called monasteries, tell me? I will be cautious: I will admit no wicked man. How wilt thou admit no evil one? … Those who are about to enter, do not know themselves; how much less dost thou know them? For many have promised themselves that they were about to fulfil that holy life, which has all things in common, where no man calleth anything his own, who have one soul and one heart in God:(1) they have been put into the furnace, and have cracked. How then knowest thou him who is unknown even to himself? … Where then is security? Here nowhere; in this life nowhere, except solely in the hope of the promise of God. But there, when we shall reach thereunto, is complete security, when the gates are shut, and the bars of the gates of Jerusalem made fast;(2) there is truly full jubilance, and great delight. Only do not thou feel secure m praising any sort of life: “judge no man blessed before his death.”(3)

9. By this means men are deceived, so that they either do not undertake, or rashly attempt, a better life; because, when they choose to praise, they praise without mention of the evil that is mixed with the good: and those who choose to blame, do so with so envious and perverse a mind, as to shut their eyes to the good, and exaggerate only the evils which either actually exist there, or are imagined. Thus it happeneth, that when any profession hath been ill. that is, incautiously, praised, if it hath invited men by its own reputation, they who betake themselves thither discover some such as they did not believe to be there; and offended by the wicked recoil from the good. Brethren, apply this teaching to your life, and hear in such a manner that ye may live. The Church Of God, to speak generally, is magnified: Christians, and Christians alone, are called great, the Catholic (Church) is magnified; all love each other; each and all do all they can for one another; they give themselves up to prayers, fastings, hymns; throughout the whole world, with peaceful unanimity God is praised. Some one perhaps heareth this, who is ignorant that nothing is said of the wicked who are mingled with them; he cometh, invited by these praises, findeth bad men mixed with them, who were not mentioned to him before he came; he is offended by false Christians, he flieth from true Christians. Again, men who hate and slander them, precipitately blame them: asking, what sort of men are Christians? Who are Christians? Covetous men, usurers. Are not the very persons who fill the Churches on holidays the same who during the games and other spectacles fill the theatres and amphitheatres? They are drunken, gluttonous, envious, slanderers of each other. There are such, but not such only. And this slanderer in his blindness saith nothing of the good: and. that praiser in his want of caution is silent about the bad . … Thus also in that common life of brethren, which exists in a monastery: great and holy men live therein, with daily hymns, prayers, praises of God; their occupation is reading; they labour with their own hands, and by this means support themselves;(1) they seek nothing covetously; whatever is brought in for them by pious brethren, they use with contentedness and charity; no one claimeth as his own what another hath not; all love, all forbear one another mutually. Thou hast praised them; thou hast praised; he who knoweth not what is going on within, who knoweth not how, when the wind entereth, ships even in harbour dash against one another, entereth as if in hope of security, expecting to find no man to forbear; he findeth there evil brethren, who could not have been found evil, if they had not been admitted (and they must be at first tolerated, lest they should perchance reform; nor can they easily be excluded, unless they have first been endured): and becometh himself impatient beyond endurance. Who asked me here? I thought that love was here. And irritated by the perversity of some few men, since he hath not persevered in fulfilling his vow, he becometh a deserter of so holy a design, and guilty of a vow he hath never discharged. And then, when he hath gone forth himself too, he also becometh a reproacher, and a slanderer; and records those things only (sometimes real), which he asserts that he could not have endured. But the real troubles of the wicked ought to be endured for the society of the good. The Scripture saith unto him: “Woe unto those that have lost patience.”(2) And what is more, he belcheth abroad the evil savour of his indignation, as a means to deter them who are about to enter; because, when he had entered himself, he could not persevere. Of what sort are they? Envious, quarrelsome, men who forbear no man, covetous; saying, He did this there, and he did that there. Wicked one, why art thou silent about the good ! Thou sayest enough of those whom thou couldest not endure: thou sayest nothing of those who endured thy wickedness . …

9. By this means men are deceived, so that they either do not undertake, or rashly attempt, a better life; because, when they choose to praise, they praise without mention of the evil that is mixed with the good: and those who choose to blame, do so with so envious and perverse a mind, as to shut their eyes to the good, and exaggerate only the evils which either actually exist there, or are imagined. Thus it happeneth, that when any profession hath been ill. that is, incautiously, praised, if it hath invited men by its own reputation, they who betake themselves thither discover some such as they did not believe to be there; and offended by the wicked recoil from the good. Brethren, apply this teaching to your life, and hear in such a manner that ye may live. The Church Of God, to speak generally, is magnified: Christians, and Christians alone, are called great, the Catholic (Church) is magnified; all love each other; each and all do all they can for one another; they give themselves up to prayers, fastings, hymns; throughout the whole world, with peaceful unanimity God is praised. Some one perhaps heareth this, who is ignorant that nothing is said of the wicked who are mingled with them; he cometh, invited by these praises, findeth bad men mixed with them, who were not mentioned to him before he came; he is offended by false Christians, he flieth from true Christians. Again, men who hate and slander them, precipitately blame them: asking, what sort of men are Christians? Who are Christians? Covetous men, usurers. Are not the very persons who fill the Churches on holidays the same who during the games and other spectacles fill the theatres and amphitheatres? They are drunken, gluttonous, envious, slanderers of each other. There are such, but not such only. And this slanderer in his blindness saith nothing of the good: and. that praiser in his want of caution is silent about the bad . … Thus also in that common life of brethren, which exists in a monastery: great and holy men live therein, with daily hymns, prayers, praises of God; their occupation is reading; they labour with their own hands, and by this means support themselves;(1) they seek nothing covetously; whatever is brought in for them by pious brethren, they use with contentedness and charity; no one claimeth as his own what another hath not; all love, all forbear one another mutually. Thou hast praised them; thou hast praised; he who knoweth not what is going on within, who knoweth not how, when the wind entereth, ships even in harbour dash against one another, entereth as if in hope of security, expecting to find no man to forbear; he findeth there evil brethren, who could not have been found evil, if they had not been admitted (and they must be at first tolerated, lest they should perchance reform; nor can they easily be excluded, unless they have first been endured): and becometh himself impatient beyond endurance. Who asked me here? I thought that love was here. And irritated by the perversity of some few men, since he hath not persevered in fulfilling his vow, he becometh a deserter of so holy a design, and guilty of a vow he hath never discharged. And then, when he hath gone forth himself too, he also becometh a reproacher, and a slanderer; and records those things only (sometimes real), which he asserts that he could not have endured. But the real troubles of the wicked ought to be endured for the society of the good. The Scripture saith unto him: “Woe unto those that have lost patience.”(2) And what is more, he belcheth abroad the evil savour of his indignation, as a means to deter them who are about to enter; because, when he had entered himself, he could not persevere. Of what sort are they? Envious, quarrelsome, men who forbear no man, covetous; saying, He did this there, and he did that there. Wicked one, why art thou silent about the good ! Thou sayest enough of those whom thou couldest not endure: thou sayest nothing of those who endured thy wickedness . …

10. “O serve the Lord with gladness” (verse 2): he addresseth you, whoever ye are who endure all things in love, and rejoice in hope. “Serve the Lord,” not in the bitterness of murmuring, but in the “gladness of love.” “Come before His presence with rejoicing.” It is easy to rejoice outwardly: rejoice before the presence of God. Let not the tongue be too joyful: let the conscience be joyful. “Come before His presence with a song.”

11. “Be ye sure that the Lord He is God” (verse 3). Who knoweth not that the Lord, He is God? But He speaketh of the Lord, whom men thought not God: “Be ye sure that the Lord He is God.” Let not that Lord become vile in your sight: ye have crucified Him, scourged Him, spit upon Him, crowned Him with thorns, clothed Him in a dress of infamy, hung Him upon the Cross, pierced Him with nails, wounded Him with a spear, placed guards at His tomb; He is God. “It is He that hath made us, and not we ourselves.” It is He that hath made us: “and without Him was not anything made that was made.”(3) What reason have ye for exultation, what reason have ye for pride? Another made you; the Same who made you, suffereth from you. But ye extol yourselves, and glory in yourselves, as if ye were created by yourselves. It is good for you that He who made you, make you perfect . … “We are His people, and the sheep of His pasture.” Sheep and one sheep. These sheep are one sheep: and how loving a Shepherd we have! He left the ninety and nine, and descended to seek the one, He bringeth it back on His own shoulders(4) ransomed by His own blood. That Shepherd dieth without fear for the sheep, who on His resurrection regaineth His sheep.

12. “Enter into His gates with confession” (verse 3). At the gates is the beginning: begin with confession. Thence is the Psalm entitled, “A Psalm of Confession:” there be joyful. Confess that ye were not made by yourselves, praise Him by whom ye were made. Let thy good come from Him, in departing from whom thou hast caused thine evil. “Enter into His gates with confession.” Let the flock enter into the gates: let it not remain outside, a prey for wolves. And how is it to enter? “With confession.” Let the gate, that is, the commencement for thee, be confession. Whence it is said in another Psalm, “Begin unto the Lord with confession.”(5) What he there calleth “Begin,” here he calleth “Gates.” “Enter into His gates in confession.” What? And when we have entered, shall we not still confess? Always confess Him: thou hast always what to confess for. It is hard in this life for a man to be so far changed, that no cause for censure be discoverable in him: thou must needs blame thyself, lest He who shall condemn blame thee. Therefore even when thou hast entered His courts, then also confess. When will there be no longer confession of sins? In that rest, in that likeness to the Angels. But consider what I have said: there will there be no confession of sins. I said not, there will be no confession: for there will be confession of praise. Thou wilt ever confess, that He is God, thou a creature; that He is thy Protector, thyself protected. In Him thou shalt be as it were hid.’ “Go into His courts with hymns; and confess unto Him.” Confess in the gates; and when ye have entered the courts, confess with hymns. Hymn are praises. Blame thyself, when thou art entering; when thou hast entered, praise Him. “Open me the gates of righteousness,” he saith in another Psalm, “that I may go into them, and confess unto the Lord.”(2) Did he say, when I have entered, I will no longer confess? Even after his entrance, he will confess. For what sins did our Lord Jesus Christ confess, when He said, “I confess unto Thee, O Father”?(3) He confessed in praising Him, not in accusing Himself. “Speak good of His Name.”

13. “For the Lord is pleasant” (verse 4). Think not that ye faint in praising Him. Your praise of Him is like food: the more ye praise Him, the more ye acquire strength, and He whom ye praise becometh the more sweet. “His mercy is everlasting.” For He will not cease to be merciful, after He hath freed thee: it belongeth to His mercy to protect thee even unto eternal life. “His mercy,” therefore, “is to everlasting: and His truth from generation to generation” (verse 5). Understand by” from generation to generation,” either every generation, or in two generations, the one earthly, the other heavenly. Here there is one generation which produceth mortals; another which maketh such as are everlasting. His Truth is both here, and there. Imagine not that His truth is not here, if His truth were not here, he would not say in another Psalm: “Truth is risen out of the earth;”(4) nor would Truth Itself say, Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.”(5)

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Bishop MacEvilly's Commentary on 1 Peter 2:11-19

Posted 4/14/2013

Note: Like many commentators in his day the Bishop made use of paraphrases after quoting the actual text of Scripture, these paraphrases (in red) , along with his notes are reproduced here with some slight editing and omissions.  More resources for this Sunday’s readings can be found here.

2:11  Dearly beloved, I beseech you, as strangers and pilgrims, to refrain yourselves from carnal desires which war against the soul,

Dearly beloved, I earnestly exhort and implore of you, as strangers here below, and pilgrims traveling on through this vale of tears towards your heavenly country, to refrain from, and have on communication with, these carnal desires so much valued by this world, and which war against the soul, and ruin its eternal interests.

I beseech you may also bear, as apears from the Greek παρακαλέω (parakaleo), the signification of, I exhort you, as strangers and pilgrims.  Reference is made to the condition of Christians here below, whose country is in heaven, and who are here living in a foreign land.  The idea may have been suggested by the condition of the Jews scattered in foreign regions, far away from Judea.  To refrain youselves from carnal desires.  As travelers should not busy themselves with the concerns of the countries through which they pass, so neither should Christians, traveling on through this strange land, towards their heavenly country, take part in these carnal, noxious desires of pleasures, honors, and riches, so much prized by this world.  Which war against the soul; these desires, if indulged into an illicit extent, and for bad ends, ruin the life of the soul, and involve it in spiritual and eternal death.

2:12  Having your conversation good among the Gentiles: that whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may, by the good works which they shall behold in you, glorify God in the day of visitation.

Leading an edifying and praiseworthy life, among the unconverted Gentiles, so that instead of reproaching you, and speaking against you as malefactors, as they do at present, they may, upon a closer inspection of your good works, give glory to God in the day on which he may be pleased to visit them in his mercy, and give them his grace and faith.

Having your conversation, that is, the whole course of your conduct and actions good, or praiseworthy and edifying.  Among the Gentiles, the unconverted Gentiles, among whom they live in Pontus, Galatia, &c.  That whereas they speak of you as evil doers.  The Greek for whereas, ἐν ὅ(en ho), means instead ofSpeaking ill of you as evil doers, probably refers to the charges of infanticide and other obscenities, which the early Christians were accused of having committed at their meetings by the Pagans…the principal accusation, however, to which St Peter here refers, would appear to be, as the context warrants us in thinking, that of refusing to obey the temporal magistrates and governors.  In the day of visitation, most probably regards the gracious visitation of God, when he will visit them in his mercy, and call them to his holy faith.

2:13  Be ye subject therefore to every human creature for God’s sake: whether it be to the king as excelling,

Be subject, therefore, and obedient to every human being, whether Jew or Gentile, faithful or unbeliever, placed in authority over you, for the sake of God whom they represent, and by whose ordinance they rule, whether to the king or emperor, as exercising supreme temporal authority in the state.

It appears that at this time the Jews were imbued with a spirit of disaffection towards Roman emperors, as we learn from Josephus and Suetonius; they considered it degrading to the chosen people of God, the descendants of Abraham, to whom were made so many and such magnificent promises, to obey or pay tribute to foreigners and unbelievers.  This spirit they carried with them into the very bosom of Christianity.  The foolish rebellion of Judas of Galilee (Acts 5:37), would serve to fasten more closely this imputation of insubordination, so injurious to the spread of the Gospel, on the Christians, whose teachers were Galileans.  Hence the zeal displayed by St Peter and by St Paul in instructing the Christians of their own day, and at all future times, regarding their obligations in this respect.  Be ye subject, therefore, to every human creature.  The word therefore shows that the chief point in which they were reproached, as evil doers (vs 12), was on the subject of insubordination and disaffection towards temporal authority.  For God’s sake.  In Greek, δια τον κυριον  (dia ton kurios), for the Lord’s sakeWhether to the king.  The word king refers to the Roman emperor, called by the Greeks, Basileus, or king.  Claudius, or according to others, Nero, was the reigning emperor at this time as excelling, i.e., exercising supreme temporal authority; for, the state, or secular authority is supreme in its own sphere, that is to say, in regard to merely temporal government matters…

2:14  Or to governors as sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of the good.

Or to governors or other inferior magistrates as sent by the same God, for the purpose of upholding order, by rewarding those who do good, and punishing such as do evil.

Or to governors sent by him.  Under the word governors are included all those in a subordinate capacity, entrusted with authority; as sent by him; by God.  The opinion referring him to God, is preferred by Estius; because, he says, the Roman emperors did not always send out governors.  This was often done by the Senate.  Again, they did not always send them for the object here specified, viz., for the punishment of evil doers &c.  Others understand the words to mean, “as sent” by the emperor or king; for he ordinarily did so, and the general end for which they were and should be sent was, for the punishment of those who did ill, and the praise or reward of such as acted well.  Similar are the words of Romans 13~”for he is God’s minister to thee for good; he is God’s minister, an avenger to exercise wrath upon him that doeth evil.”

2:15   For so is the will of God, that by doing well you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men:

For the will of God is this, that by your good actions you close, or rather muzzle, the mouths of foolish, ignorant men, who wrongfully bring charges against our holy religion, of teachings and principles of which they are utterly ignorant.

For this is the will of God.  these words, as appears from the Greek, refer not to the preceding, but the following.  That by doing well, you may put to silence.  The Greek word for put to silence, φιμόω (phimoo), means, to muzzleThe ignorance of foolish men, who attempt to revile a religion, of which they are wholly ignorant.  The doing well, regards good works in general, but especially subordination to temporal authority.

2:16  As free and not as making liberty a cloak for malice, but as the servants of God.

(Be subject to every human being placed in authority over you-verse 13-from a free spirit of generosity, and a love of justice), and make not the liberty into which Christ asserted you the pretext for insubordination and other wicked deeds, but serve temporal rulers, as if you were serving God himself, from whom they derive their power.

As free.  These words, as appears from the Greek, ως ελευθερο (hos eleutheros), are to be connected with verse 13, and not with doing well, ἀγαθοποιός
(agathopoios), which is in a different case (verse 14).  And not as making liberty, the liberty into which Christ asserted you by his grace; a liberty and freedom from the dominion of sin and of the passions; a cloak for malice, a pretext for insubordination and other crimes.  It appears that the Gnostics, Nicholaites, and other heretics in the Apostolic age construed the liberty into which Christ asserted them, as implying a total independence of all temporal authority, and even a freedom from moral restraint.  Hence, they thought themselves justified in indulging in the most unbounded licentiousness.  This is what the Apostle here alludes to in saying, not making liberty a cloak for malice, i.e., licentiousness of all sorts.  But as servants of God, serving our temporal rulers in all things lawful, as if we were serving God, whose vicegerents they are, and from whom they hold the reigns of government.

2:17  Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

Treat all men with the honor and respect due to them; but in a special manner, cherish and love the brethren of the faith.  as a safe check against carrying your obedience too far, so as to extend to things evil as well as good, have a filial fear of God; and hold in special honor the supreme ruler on earth, the king or emperor.

Honor all men, i.e., pay all men the degree of honor and respect due to each one.  Similar is the injunction “honor to whom honor is due” (Rom 13).  Love the brotherhood.  The members of the household of the faith should be, in a special manner, the objects of our affection.  “we should do good to all, but especially to those who are of the household of the faith” (Gal 5:10).  Fear God with a reverential fear, which should serve as a check upon us against carrying our compliance with the mandates of authority too far, to evil and unlawful things, as well as to the lawful subjects of obedience.  Honor the king, is probably added, because the reigning prince, whether Claudius or Nero, were not the most deserving objects of respect or reverence.

2:18  Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and gentle but also to the froward.

Servants, be subject to your masters with great reverence and respect; not only to such as are kind and gentle, but also to such as are froward and morose.

The Apostle passes from inculcating obedience to public authority, to treat of domestic obedience, which servants and domestics owe their masters.  It appears that, on this subject also, false notions were afloat, and that many were of the opinion, that duties of servitude were inconsistent with the liberty of the Gospel, and that servants and domestics after their conversion, were exempted from obedience to their temporal masters.  One of the charges against Christianity was, that it subverted the relations between servants and masters.  With all fear, that is, great reverence and respect.  To the froward, such as may be rough and unkind in their treatment of them.

2:19  For this is thankworthy: if, for conscience towards God, a man endure sorrows, suffering wrongfully.

For, this is the work of God’s grace, exceedingly pleasing to him; if from a consciousness of God’s will and pleasure that he should do so, or from a pure motive of religion, a person submit to troubles and sorrows, and suffer unjustly.

Thankworthy, χάρις (charis), grace, that is the effect of God’s grace, or a thing exceedingly pleasing to him.  If for conscience towards God, that is, from a conscientious knowledge that God wills it so; in other words, from pure religious motives, a man endured sorrows, anguish of mind, and miseries.  Suffering wrongfully, suffering unmerited punishment.

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This Week's Posts: Sunday, April 7--Sunday, April 14

Posted 4/7/2013

SUNDAY, APRIL 7 2013
DIVINE MERCY SUNDAY
Dominica in Albis in Octava Paschae ~ I. classis

 RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms). On site.

Last Week’s Posts (Sunday, March 31-Sunday, April 7. On site.

MONDAY, APRIL 8 2013
SOLEMNITY OF THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE LORD
In Annuntiatione Beate Mariæ Virgine ~ I. classis
Commemoratio: Feria Secunda infra Hebdomadam Passionis

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM: Reading from Isaiah differs slightly from the OF, Gospel is identical.

TUESDAY, APRIL 9 2013
TUESDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Tertia infra Hebdomadam I post Octavam Paschae ~ IV. classis
Commemoratio: S. Aniceti Papae et Martyris 

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

  • NOTE: The Gospel reading for today (see below) is the same as was used in the Ordinary Form for Divine Mercy Sunday.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 10 2013
WEDNESDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Quarta infra Hebdomadam I post Octavam Paschae ~ IV. classis

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

  • NOTE: The Gospel reading for today (see below) is the same as was used in the Ordinary Form for Divine Mercy Sunday.

THURSDAY, APRIL 11 2013
MEMORIAL OF ST STANISLAUS, BISHOP AND MARTYR
Feria Quinta infra Hebdomadam I post Octavam Paschae ~ IV. classis 

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

  • NOTE: The Gospel reading for today (see below) is the same as was used in the Ordinary Form for Divine Mercy Sunday.

FRIDAY, APRIL 12, 2013
FRIDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK OF EASTER
Feria Sexta infra Hebdomadam I post Octavam Paschee ~ IV. classis

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

  • NOTE: The Gospel reading for today (see below) is the same as was used in the Ordinary Form for Divine Mercy Sunday.

SATURDAY, APRIL 13 2013
SATURDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK OF EASTER
S. Anselmi Episcopi Confessoris et Ecclesiae Doctoris ~ III. classis
Tempora: Sabbato infra Hebdomadam I post Octavam Paschae

ORDINARY FORM:

EXTRAORDINARY FORM:

SUNDAY, APRIL 14 2013
THIRD SUNDAY OF EASTER

Dominica II Post Pascha ~ II. classis

Pending: RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms). Usually posted on Tues., Wed., or Thurs. evenings.

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